Monday, February 5, 2018

Tlaxcala Part 7a: Museo Regional artifacts from the Pre-Classic to the Epi-Classic Eras

Priest of the Rain God Tlaloc. The molded-clay statue was created during the Epi-Classic era (650-900 AD). This was the period between the fall of Teotihuacán and the rise of the Toltec Empire. In Tlaxcala, a city-state called Cacaxtla arose in the western part of the state. It became an important regional power by dominating one of Teotihuacán's former trade routes. The priestly status of the figure above is indicated both by the "goggles" over the eyes--typical of Tlaloc imagery--and the sacred bundle held in his left hand. The priest wears an elaborate head dress, indicating a high status, his lower body is attired only with a loin cloth and ankle bracelets.

In this posting, we'll take a look at the Museo Regional and a selection of its treasures. The Museo is located in the old cloister (living area) of the Convento Franciscano de Nuestra Señora de la Asunción, seen in the previous two postings. Because there are so many wonderful artifacts contained in the museum, I will show them in two posts. This one will cover the Formative (Pre-Classic) Era (2000 BC-100 AD), the Classic (100-650 AD) and Epi-Classic (650-900 AD).

Museo Regional

Scale model of the cloister, which now contains the Museo Regional. The cloister area has the orange roof and is entered through the three arches at the lower left of the photo. They lead into the atrium (open-air patio area) in the center. Parts of the left side of the cloister include administrative offices for the Catedral de Tlaxcala, which is the long rectangular building with the brown roof, along the right side of the cloister. Construction on the cloister began in 1537, following completion of the Catedral (originally called Templo de San Francisco de Assisi, after the founder of the Order). The cloister has housed the Museo Regional since 1985.

Atrium or patio of the cloister. In the middle is a fountain, surrounded on all four sides by arched portales which protect the open-air walkways on both floors. This architectural arrangement is very typical of convento cloisters in Nueva España. Within buildings such as these, the Franciscan friars lived and worked. Today, the lower floor houses exhibits from the pre-hispanic period up through the Conquest. The upper floor contains exhibits from the colonial and national periods.

Elaborately carved rafters within the cloister area. Notice the diamond-shaped cartouches along the top. Each of these contains a 4-petal flower. It is interesting to note that such flowers appear in many ancient pre-hispanic cities. The flowers symbolize the four cardinal points of the cosmos (north, south, east, west). These directions are sacred and each is associated with a different god. It is very likely that the craftsmen who carved these rafters were indigenous, and probably only recently converted. Ironically, they were incorporating pagan decorative elements into one of the earliest centers for evangelizing native people. This covert practice was common throughout Nueva España. It is not clear whether the Franciscans understood the connection at the time. However, when they ultimately figured out what was going on, they denounced the such images, calling them "idols behind the altars."

Wall murals were another form of early convento decoration. Again, the craftsmen were no doubt indigenous Tlaxcalans. While much of the luxuriant foliage has been worn away or painted over, enough remains to appreciate the skill of the artists.

17th century atrial cross, carved from cantera stone. Crosses like this were typically erected in a large, open atrium such as the one directly in front of of the Franciscan cloister and its church. To appreciate the size of this atrium, and its relationship to the other structures of the Convento, see the scale model in Part 5 of this series. These expansive areas were devoted to evangelization because they allowed the friars to gather large numbers of native people for mass conversions and religious education. Often, this education was delivered in the form of religious plays and processions. The indigenous masses were virtually always illiterate (at least in the European sense), so the crosses were often covered by easily understood symbols relating to the Passion of Christ (i.e. the events leading up to and including the crucifixion). The figure of the crucified Jesus was deliberately left off the cross. The friars wanted to avoid making any association between the crucifixion and the pre-hispanic practice of human sacrifice.

Formative or Pre-Classic Era

Storm God figurine found in the Tlaxcala area. The grinning figure holds what appears to be a writhing snake in his right hand. This small, molded-clay figure was created during the middle-to-late Pre-Classic Era (800 AD-100 AD). Agriculture had been practiced for thousands of years by this time. Increasing food surpluses allowed people to begin living in villages and, by the late Pre-Classic period, even in large towns. Storms were viewed as awesome events, with their thunder, lightning, torrential rains, and floods. On the other hand, rain was essential for the cultivation of maiz (corn) and other food crops. As a result, people began to worship deities, such as the Storm God (predecessor to Tlaloc), who were believed to control both the positive and destructive aspects of these natural forces.

Feminine figure. This little statue is of molded clay, with incisions and applications. Otherwise nude, she has a complex hairstyle, which may also be  some sort of head dress. Figures like this are believed to have been used as offerings in religious ceremonies. They are particularly interesting because they reveal how people saw themselves.

Ceramic head, found in Tlaxcala. It is not clear whether this was once part of a male or female figure, although I would bet on male due to the less elaborate hair style. Archeologists believe that figures like this and the previous female figure represent the ideal of beauty in the minds of their creators.

Olmec ball game yoke. This artifact was discovered in Tlaxcala, but originated in the Gulf Coast area dominated by the Olmecs. During the pre-hispanic ball game, leather or wicker yokes were worn around players' midriffs to protect them from the heavy rubber balls. A strike in an unprotected area of the body could cause serious injuries or even death. Stone yokes were symbolic imitations of the lighter versions the players actually wore. While few, if any, leather or wicker yokes have survived, those carved from stone have often been found in ancient tombs. They were placed there to commemorate a sacrificed player or a person who had some other important connection to the ball game. The Olmecs (1500-400 BC) have often been called the "Mother of Cultures." Through trade and colonization, they exerted strong cultural influences throughout Mesoamerica. Some of their trade routes passed through Tlaxcala. Many of the key aspects of later civilizations originated with the Olmecs. Examples include the ball game, stepped pyramids, human sacrifice, the ancient calendar, worship of the Plumed Serpent, and the earliest writing in the Americas.

The Classic Era

Classic Era ceramic pot in the shape of a reclining dog. This charming molded-clay pot was found in the village of Ocotitla, on the northeastern outskirts of the modern city of Tlaxcala. Notice the spout in the handle to make it easier to pour its liquid contents. Dogs were popular subjects for potters in the Classic Era (100-650 AD). They were one of a handful of animals domesticated by the ancient people. Some dogs were kept as pets but others served as a source of meat. Dogs also played a role in mythology as guides for the souls of the dead on their journey into Mictlán (the underworld). This one, found in a tomb, apparently was  intended for that purpose.

Ceramic olla patoja (lame pot). This pot is not dated, other than to the Classic Era. However, similar ones found around altars in the ruins of Teotihuacán date to 250-450 AD. This was a period when the great trading city's influence was spreading throughout Mesoamerica. One of Teotihuacán's key trade routes ran through Tlaxcala to the Gulf Coast. In fact, from 300-500 AD, the ancient town of Tecoaque, in eastern Tlaxcala, was a Teotihuacan military/trading outpost along this route. This fits rather nicely with the dating of the Teotihuacan ollas pantojas. Pots like these were manufactured in Teotihuacán and then exported for use in religious ceremonies elsewhere.

Jarra (pitcher or jug) from Teotihuacán found in the Tlaxcala area. The jarra is not dated except to the general Classic Era. It is another example of trade goods exported from Teotihuacán. I find it remarkable that a pot like this could survive a long journey, given that it is large and heavy, while also relatively fragile. The merchant/trader would have had to transport it along primitive footpaths on the back of one of his human porters.

Large pot decorated with an abstract design. The origin of this Classic Era pot is unknown, but it may also have come from Teotihuacán. A pot of this size and shape would probably have been used for cooking. Its beautiful design indicates that it would have graced the kitchen of a high-status home.

The Epi-Classic Era

Urn from Cacaxtla. Urns like this were used for ceremonial purposes and were often left in tombs as grave goods. The high-status individual on the side of the urn wears an elaborate head dress and stands with his arms raised in a ritual posture. Other decorations on the sides of the urn include musicians, plants and animals. The scenes may represent a ritual devoted to a particular god.  Cacaxtla is located in eastern Tlaxcala, near its border with the State of Puebla. It was an important regional power during the Epi-Classic Era (650-900 AD), which is the period between the fall of Teotihuacán and the rise of the Toltecs.

Carved stone statue of a warrior or priest. The sophisticated head dress, earrings, necklace and general posture indicate a high status individual. Between his hands he holds a circular object that may represent a chalchihuite (jewel or drop of water) or possibly a mirror used for divination. Archeologists are undecided about whether the figure is a warrior or a priest. My bet is a warrior, because the Epi-Classic was a time of instability, militarism, and invasions by Chichimec nomads from the north. Small, fortified city-states like Cacaxtla arose, along with  Xochicalco (south of Cuernavaca), and La Quemada (south of Zacatecas). These three were important regional powers that came to dominate sections of Teotihuacán's vast trade network after the empire collapsed. The relationships among the Epi-Classic regional powers shifted back and forth between trade partner and political/military competitor.

Small clay figures used in fertility rites at Xochitécatl. Within sight of the fortified hilltop city of Cacaxtla is another, much older, hilltop city known as Xochitécatl. This ancient site dates back to the middle of the Pre-Classic Era. Due to an eruption of the still-active Volcan Popocatépatl, Xochitécatl was abandoned in 150 AD. However, in 600 AD, it was reoccupied and its crumbling old pyramids were used as ceremonial sites by the newly arrived inhabitants of Cacaxla. Large numbers of these figurillas (little figures) were left on the grand staircase and top level of Xochitécatl's "Pyramid of the Flowers". They were apparently left as fertility offerings. These ceremonies also appear to have involved the ritual sacrifice of children. Notice the four-petaled flower in the center of each figure's head dress.

Another fertility offering left at Xochitécatl shows a baby emerging from the womb.  Fertility rites were sometimes aimed at ensuring a good crop but, in this case, the offering seems be about the fertility of a woman. Given the elaborate head dress of the figurilla, the woman in question was probably a high-status individual.

Epi-Classic child's toy, found at Xochitécatl. The figure of a dog has wheels on his haunches. There are holes in his shoulders showing where an axle went through to mount another set of wheels. Over the last ten years, Carole and I have visited many pre-hispanic sites and museums. During those visits, we have occasionally encountered wheeled objects, all of which seem to have been created as toys. Clearly Mesoamerican people understood the concept of wheels, but they never used them in any practical way. Why? The answer is simple: no draft animals. Why couldn't humans have been used to pull wheeled carts? Well, for that, you would have to create an extensive road system. Mexico is a very mountainous country where road-building has always been difficult. In any case, the number of people you would need to pull a cart full of goods would probably exceed the number you would need to simply carry those goods on backpacks. Further, with human porters, you could use existing footpaths.

Conch trumpet with holes, possibly for a carrying strap. Conch shells were the most important wind instrument in the Mesoamerican musical repertoire. While they must, sometimes, have been employed for simple entertainment, their most important use was in religious ceremonies and as signaling devices during military operations. Conch trumpets were often elaborately carved with religious symbols and decorated with feathers. Throughout Mesoamerica, conches appear on sculptures and in wall murals. At Teotihuacán's Palacio Quetzalpapalotl, wall murals show marching jaguars blowing conch trumpets. In 1521, during the siege of the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlán, eyewitness Bernal Diaz del Castillo reported hearing the mournful wail of quiquiztli (conch trumpets) as he observed Spanish prisoners being marched up the steps of the Templo Mayor to be sacrificed to the Aztec War God Huitzilopochtli.

Stone relief carving shows two priests conducting rituals. Both have elaborate head dresses. The figure on the left wears large circular earrings and a jade belt, while the one on the right appears to be wearing a mask of some sort. The figure on the left holds a priest's sacred bundle in his left hand as he crouches to face the viewer. The priest on the right dances as he clutches a writhing snake in his right hand and a rattle in his left.

Toltec warrior holding a shield, or possibly a mirror. The attire and stance of this high-status warrior indicates he may be a general or governor. The Toltecs were an especially militaristic society who arose at the end of the Epi-Classic Era. Their capital was Tollan (modern Tula) in Hidalgo State, north of Mexico City. They may have originated as a melding of Teotihuacán refugees with Chichimec invaders. By 900 AD, the Toltecs had achieved considerable power. For the next 300 years, they extended their control over the central part of Mesoamerica, including the Tlaxcla area. However, they never approached the reach of Teotihuacán. The eclipse and disappearance of regional powers like Cacaxtla may have been due to the rise of the Toltec Empire. The Toltec period forms a chronological bridge between the end of the Classic Era and the first part of the Post-Classic. In my next posting, we'll look at artifacts from Post-Classic societies, the Conquest, and the Colonial and National periods.

This completes Part 7a of my Tlaxcala series. If you have enjoyed it, please leave any comments or questions in the Comments section below, or email me directly. If you leave a question in the Comments section PLEASE leave your email address so that I can respond.

Hasta Luego, Jim

Saturday, January 27, 2018

Tlaxcala Part 6: Cathedral of Our Lady of the Assumption

Detail from the main retablo in the Chapel of the Third Order. The figure above, although only identified as "Caballero" (Gentleman), may be San Luis Rey, the sainted 13th Century French King. The 18th century Capilla del Orden Tercero is one of the most extravagant I have yet encountered. The chapel extends out from the right side of the Catedral de Nuestra Señora de la Asunción, near the altar of the main nave. The church, which is part of a former Franciscan Convento, is also known as Catedral de Tlaxcala. It is one of the oldest cathedrals in Mexico. When the church was originally built it was called Templo de San Francisco de Assisi, in honor of St. Francis of Assisi, the founder and patron saint of the Franciscan Order. Martín de Valencia was one of the twelve original Franciscan friars who arrived in Nueva España (colonial Mexico) in 1524, only two years after the fall of the Aztec Empire. As the only one of the twelve with building experience, he oversaw the construction of the Franciscan Convento and its Templo. Later, when the Christianized population grew sizable enough, the church was given the status of Cathedral--the administrative seat of a Catholic diocese. It now shares that status with the Puebla Cathedral. In this posting, I will walk you through Catedral de Tlaxcala to examine its early colonial artifacts, architectural details, and sumptuous decoration. If you visit Tlaxcala this place is definitely a "must-see". To locate the Catedral on a Google map of Tlaxcala, click here.

Cathedral exterior

Externally, the cathedral is rather simple. It is the long rectangular building with the olive-colored roof, seen in the center above. To its left is the orange-roofed Franciscan cloister (living area). The four chapels extending from the church's right side were added a century or more later. The chapel with the dome is the Capilla de la Orden Tercero. The exterior of the main building is quite austere, which fits the style of the early Franciscan evangelists. There are two unusual architectural features: the lack of a dome over the altar of the main nave and a bell tower that is separated from the church by an expansive wide atrium. The austere exterior masks the opulence of the interior.

The Renaissance-style facade is characteristic of Franciscan simplicity. At least in the early years, the Franciscans of Nueva España took their vows of poverty seriously, both in their architecture and in their lifestyles generally. They saw themselves as a 16th century version of the biblical Twelve Apostles, with a mission of saving the benighted souls of the "devil-worshiping" indigenous people. They were utopians who worked to set up ideal Christian communities, free from European materialism and corruption. This led to some contradictory results. On the one hand, they often acted as protectors of the native people. The conquistadors, and the hordes of greedy Spaniards who followed them into Nueva España, sought fame and fortune. They considered the natives to be subhuman and felt no compunction about brutalizing them through rape, torture, murder, and--most profitably--enslavement. The Franciscans and other religious orders provided the native people with their only protection against this onslaught. While the Franciscans viewed indigenous people as genuine human beings, they saw them as unformed children, pure in nature but needing a firm hand to keep them from backsliding into idolatry. Those who failed to attend religious services, or showed reluctance to adopt acceptable religious practices, were whipped until they saw the light of Christianity.

A carved stone rope is part of the facade's decoration. The rope represents the rough cord the Franciscans used as a belt for their robes. It symbolizes both the rope that bound Jesus on his way to the cross and the binding nature of the Franciscan vows, most particularly that of poverty. This facade is one of the oldest parts of the overall structure. Construction of the main nave of Templo de San Francisco de Assisi began in 1530 and continued until 1536. The side chapels were added later and their decorations date to the 17th and 18th centuries.

The Main Nave

While the overall structure of the main nave is simple, its decorations are spectacular. There is one long rectangular space with one central aisle leading to the altar. One writer described it as a big barn. At least in the early years, the interior decoration probably followed Franciscan asceticism. Over the centuries, however, the wealth of the Order grew. The sumptuous decorations, including retablos (altar pieces) and paintings, reflected the prosperity of the Franciscans and their patrons. As Spaniards grew rich through their ownership of mines, haciendas, or merchant establishments, they made donations or bequests, as a way to expiate the sins they had accumulated while amassing their wealth. Simply put, it was a way to get their tickets into heaven punched. All of this wealth purchased the intricately carved and gold-leaf covered retablos, as well as large oil paintings of biblical scenes. Most of these works of art were the products of the 17th and 18th centuries, long after the ascetic early utopians were long dead and gone.

The Mudejar-style ceiling is one of the few still in existence in the Americas. This Spanish-Arabic style emerged in 12th century Spain. The Muslim Moors had invaded in the early 8th century AD and, during the 12th century, a large part of Spain was still occupied by them. Christians and Muslims lived side-by-side for centuries and an architectural symbiosis naturally developed. One result was Mudejar, in which Muslim-inspired geometric shapes were used to decorate Christian structures such as churches, palaces, and public buildings.

Retablos of the Main Nave

The main altar at the end of the nave. This 17th century retablo has nine statues and six paintings. One of them shows the baptism of the Tlaxcalan Lord Mixixcatzin, with Hernán Cortéz and La Malinche looking on. The paintings and statues are framed by spiral columns in a style called Solomonic. There is a legend about them concerning the Roman Emperor Constantine. He was the first Christian emperor and, on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, he is said to have brought back columns from the Temple of Solomon. The Solomonic style imitates that of Constantine's architectural loot. These sorts of spiral columns were popular in Baroque architecture, and particularly in its later period, when it was called Mexican Churrigueresque, or Rococo. 

The "Retablo of the Archangels" stands on the left side of the main nave. 
There was no sign but since all of its paintings are of archangels, I gave it that name. Richard Perry, my expert on colonial art, helped me with many of the details on this retablo and those that follow. The early 17th century altar piece above is in the Renaissance/Plateresque style. The central figure appears to be the Archangel Michael who, according to the Bible story, led God's forces against Satan. San Miguel stands with his left foot on Satan's head, a posture in which he is often portrayed. Arranged around San Miguel are the six other Archangels mentioned in the Bible's Book of Enoch. They are Raphael, Gabriel, Uriel, Saraqael, and Remiel. At the very top is a painting of Jesus. 

Facing the "Retablo of the Archangels" is another across the nave's aisle. The central figure in this retablo is Jesus (Man of Sorrows). He dressed in a purple robe and is surrounded by various other figures, including an archangel above him. This 17th century Renaissance/Plateresque retablo has tritostyle columns, with the upper 2/3 in classical form and the lower 1/3 decorated.

Retablos de la Capilla de la Orden Tercera  

Capilla de la Orden Tercera is the most spectacular part of the whole church. There are at least nine retablos in this relatively small chapel, all of them exquisitely decorated. On the right you can see a raised wooden pulpit. It is reputed to be the first pulpit in the mainland Americas from which the gospel was preached. The Capilla de la Orden Tercera (Chapel of the Third Order) refers to the three divisions of the overall Franciscan Order. The First Order is composed of the male Franciscans who have taken vows of poverty and celibacy. The Second, sometimes called the Poor Clares, is for women who have taken similar vows. The Third Order is for both men and women, many of whom are married and live in the secular world. They attempt to live in ways that follow the spirit of St. Francis, but do not take vows.

The main altarpiece of the Third Order Chapel is intricately decorated. It was made in the Philippines in the 18th century and is considered one of the finest of its kind in the world. The retablo is dedicated to San Francisco de Assisi and has seven niches on three levels, each containing a statue. 

The statue bracketed by angels is of San Francisco. The retablo uses the flamboyant Churrigueresque style. Every square inch is decorated. San Francisco de Assisi balances three globes over his head, each representing one the Three Orders. Out of sight on either side of him, two niches contain statues of elegantly dressed women. Although they are not clearly identified, they may represent two sainted queens, one of Hungary and the other of Portugal but both named Isabel.

Above, another statue of San Francisco stands with hands clasped, praying. This statue stands above the one with three globes. On either side of the praying San Francisco are niches containing elegantly dressed men, identified only as "Caballero" but who may be San Luis Rey, King of France and San Fernando Rey, King of Castille, León, and Galicia.

Next to the main altar piece is a very complex retablo. This late Baroque altar piece wraps around the corner to the right of the main altar piece. A matching piece is molded around the left corner. The paintings depict various biblical scenes. 

Adjoining the corner retablo is yet another. This one is 18th century Solomonic and is devoted to the "Passion of Christ" (the various events leading up to the crucifixion). 

This retablo has a similar Passion of Christ theme. The robed figure of Jesus is bracketed by two religious figures, possibly representing important people from the First and Second Orders. Directly above are paintings of the crucifixion and other related scenes. All the niches are framed with Solomonic columns.

18th century retablo devoted to the Virgin of the Immaculate Conception. This one is located on the left side of the chapel. Above the Virgin is another painting, depicting her marriage to Joseph. At the top left is San Luis Rey, the 13th century French king who was one of the few monarchs to achieve sainthood. The top right painting is of Santa Rosalia, a devout hermit who lived and died in a cave in Sicily. The 1624 plague that devastated Palermo is believed to have been stopped when her bones were paraded through the streets. The painting on the middle right is of San José holding Jesus. Below that is an image of an unidentified Archangel. On the bottom left is the Virgin of Carmel and above her is an image of San Francisco embracing Jesus on the Cross.

Modified Solomonic retablo on the left side of the Third Order Chapel. The key figure here is the statue of San Francisco in the center of the bottom row of niches. To his left is Santa Isabel, the Queen of Portugal, another holy ruler who was devoted to the poor and sick and was renowned as a peacemaker. After the death of her husband, Portugal's king, she joined the Franciscan Third Order and continued her work. Above Santa Isabel is San Lucrecio, an obscure 5th century monk and bishop. I was unable to identify the other paintings and statues.

Also on the left side, this ornate retablo is entirely devoted to women. The women in the center all appear to be versions of the Virgin Mary. The two large statues on either side may also be the Virgin, but I am not certain of this. The columns framing the figures are not Solomonic. Instead, they were created in a style called estipite, a feature of Churrigueresque style

The Third Order Chapel also contains one of the earliest baptismal fonts in the Americas. It was used to baptize the Four Lords of Tlaxcala. These included Mixixcatzin who received the Christian name Lorenzo and Xicoténcatl (the Elder) who became Vicente. Tlahuexolotzin, was dubbed Gonzalo, and Zitlalpopocatl was given the name Bartolome. The new names were probably a lot easier for the Spanish to pronounce. The ceremony, conducted in 1520, occurred two years before the fall of the Aztecs. Officiating was Juan Diaz, the Chaplain of the Army of Conquest. Observers at the ceremony included Hernán Cortéz and his interpreter / mistress, La Malinche. Also present were Cortéz' key sub-commanders: Pedro de Alvarado, Andres de Tapia, Gonzalo de Sandoval, and Cristóbal de Olid. After the fall of the Aztecs, each of these men led forces that marched off in different directions to explore and conquer much of the rest of ancient Mexico and Central America. The baptism of the Four Lords was a very important step in the spiritual conquest of Tlaxcala. However, there were many hold-outs and this later resulted in the deaths of Los Trés Niños Martires (The Three Martyred Boys--see below).

Other Chapels 

The retablo of this chapel was done in a modified Solomonic style. The statue at the center of the bottom is of San Antonio. The paintings surrounding the statue appear to relate to events of his life.

Beautifully crafted 19th century organ. It was presented to the Franciscan Convento by the Descalced Carmelite Order, (Barefoot Carmelites). The Carmelites had a special relationship with the Franciscans, dating back to the 16th century.

Capilla de la Virgen de Guadalupe

This chapel and its retablo is devoted to the Virgin of Guadalupe, Patron of Mexico. This Solomonic-style retablo dates to 1664. Los Trés Niños Martires stand at the base of the retablo. The early Franciscans particularly concentrated on the young and these three boys were among their converts. One of the boys was the grandson of Xicoténcatl the Elder, one of the Four Lords baptized in the presence of Cortéz in 1520. The Franciscans preached fiercely against pagan idols and urged their destruction. Taking the friars at their word, the three boys smashed images of the old gods. This infuriated many older Tlaxcalans, who had not abandoned their ancestral beliefs. They clubbed the boys to death and, in turn, their killers were executed by the Spanish. This sort of intergenerational conflict was common during the early days of evangelism in Nueva España. It was a direct result of the Franciscan focus on the young, which caused them to lose respect for the ancient gods and, by extension, for the elder members of their community. Los Trés Niños Martires were canonized in October 15, 2017, more than 500 years after their deaths. Interestingly, the man who canonized them had previously taken the name Francis when he became Pope.

Capilla de Christo de Centli

A large corn-paste statue of the crucifixion stands in a glass case in the fourth chapel. The paste used to make the statue is from the pith of cornstalks. In the 16th century, Bishop Vasco de Quiroga began encouraging the native craftsmen of Michoacán to create corn-paste crucifixion statues. In fact, corn had been considered sacred by pre-hispanic people for thousands of years. There had been a tradition of crafting corn-paste gods since long before the Conquest. The Catholic concept of consuming the body of Christ during the Eucharist ceremony fit nicely with the ancient reverence for corn, the staple food of pre-hispanic Mesoamerica. Because the statues were very light, they could easily be carried in religious processions. Soon, they were eagerly sought by churches all over Nueva España, which is how the one above ended up in Catedral de Tlaxcala

This completes Part 6 of my Tlaxcala series. I hope you have enjoyed my tour of one of the oldest cathedrals in Mexico. If you have any comments or questions, please leave them in the Comments section or email me directly.

If you do leave a question in the Comments section, PLEASE include your email address so that I can respond.

Hasta luego, Jim

Wednesday, January 3, 2018

Tlaxcala Part 5: Plaza Xicoténcatl and the Ex-Convento Franciscano de Nuestra Señora de la Asunción

Plaza Xicoténcatl is named for a famous warrior-general. Xicoténcatl Axayacatzín (also known as the The Younger) was the chief military leader of the Tlaxcalteca when the Spanish arrived. The Plaza Xicoténcatl is adjacent to Plaza de la Constitution, at the larger plaza's southeast corner. In this posting, we will take a look at this lovely plaza, as well as Ex-Convento Franciscano de Nuestra Señora de la Asunción and the Jorge Aguilar Bullring.

The tree-shaded plaza contains a large fountain on one end. The plaza is surrounded by restaurants, stores, and museums. When the Spanish marched into Tlaxcalteca territory, Xicoténcatl the Younger led two weeks of bitter fighting in an attempt to stop them. After repeated defeats, the ruling council of Tlaxcala, called the Four Lords, realized that they couldn't stop Cortés. Instead, they decided to become his allies against their traditional enemies, the Mexica (Aztecs). One of the Four Lords was the young military leader's father, Xicoténcatl the Elder.

Restaurante La Tavola occupies part of the east side of the plaza. This eatery has an awning-covered area that includes a large wooden burro. It is a magnet for visiting children. Unlike his father, Xicoténcatl the Younger never trusted the Spanish. During the fight to conquer the Mexica, he resisted their domination. As a result, Cortés ordered the young general to be hanged. There is no record of his father's reaction to this drastic action. However, the alliance between Tlaxcala and the Spanish continued. After their Revolution of 1910, Mexicans took another look at their native roots. Today, Xicoténcatl's spirit of resistance is honored by this plaza and by other statues and buildings, as well as in the formal name of the city itself, Tlaxcala de Xicoténcatl.

Restaurante La Casa Azul occupies the other half of the plaza's east side. The restaurant's name means "Blue House". Originally a 19th century Neo-Classical mansion, today it specializes in coffees and traditional Mexican dishes. Until about twenty years ago, the plaza in front of the restaurant was the site of Tlaxcala's tianguis, or open-air public market. In colonial times it served as a slave market.

Pulqueria La Tia Yola projects from the south side of Casa Azul. The name means "Aunt Yola's Pulque Place". A pulqueria serves a mildly alcoholic beverage made from the maguey plant. Pulque has deep historical roots and was the main alcoholic drink of the pre-hispanic people of Mesoamerica. It remained popular among working class and rural people all through the colonial and early national period. However, in the late 19th century, German immigrants set up breweries. Cerveza (beer) is now more popular than pulque, but the traditional drink is still consumed all over Mexico.

Calzada San Francisco

Restaurante Yiandro and the entrance to Calzada San Francisco. Directly across from Pulqueria La Tia Yola is Restaurante Yiandro, on the south side of the plaza. Between them is the entrance to Calzada San Francisco, the tree-lined, cobblestone walkway that leads up to the Ex-Convento. 

Carole trudges up the Calzada. Although it is wide enough for vehicles, it is normally only used by pedestrians. We always enjoy finding serene andadores like this, where we don't have to dodge busy traffic. The Calzada is paved with a double line of cut cantera stone, set in a broad pathway of cobblestones. You can feel time dissolve as you make your way up to the 16th century convent complex.

The Cazada leads up to a triple archway that is the entrance to the Ex-convento. The arched entry is known as the Paso de Ronda. It connects the main Ex-Convento buildings with the stand-alone bell tower, out of view to the right. The Paso de Ronda contains a passageway to the tower. This architectural arrangement is unique in Mexico.

The bell tower at the end of the archway overlooks the city. It was built in three sections, with spaces for six bells in the campanario (belfry). The broad open space beyond the arches, called an atrium, was used in early colonial times to perform religious plays as a means to educate Tlaxcala's indigenous population in Catholicism.

Ex-Convento Franciscano de Nuestra Señora de la Asunción

Scale model of the Ex-Convento. The model is located in the Museo de Memoria, located on the west side of Plaza Xicoténcatl.

At the lower left, you can see the top of the Calzada San Francisco and the three arches of the Paso de Ronda, extending out to the bell tower. The other end of the arched passage connects to convent buildings which now house the offices of the Catedral de Tlaxcala.

Near the center of the photo is the former cloister of the convent. Its entrance is framed by another three arches leading to a small atrium. The cloister now contains the Museo Regional de Tlaxcala.

To the right of the museum is Iglesia de la Señora de la Asunción (Church of Our Lady of the Assumption). This structure is one of the oldest parts of the Ex-Convento. Three parallel chapels extend out from its right side. To the right of the church entrance is the small Capilla del Tercero Orden (Chapel of the Third Order).

Across the atrium from the museum, church, and chapel is another small set of buildings called the Capilla Abierta (Open Chapel).

In the center of the right side is a small square structure known as the Capilla Posa (Posa Chapel).

At the bottom you can see part of the José Aguilar Bullring. This area was once part of the Ex-convento.

Along the top and left sides of the photo are terraces that were once used as gardens and orchards to supply food for the friars and their indigenous servants.

The Ex-Convento's cloister is now the Museo Regional. The cloister is the area where the Franciscan friars once lived. Now, it is a museum filled with artifacts from Tlaxcala's history. These range from early pre-hispanic through the colonial and early national periods. If I had to recommend only one museum in Tlaxcala, this would be it.

To the right of the cloister are the church and the Third Order chapel. The Franciscans were dedicated to simplicity both in their lives and in their architecture. The facades of the church and adjoining chapel are examples of this. All of these structures were built very early in the Conquest era. For example, construction began on the church in 1530, only eight years after the defeat of the Mexica. The cloister was begun in 1537, shortly after the church was completed. These dates make the Ex-Convento the oldest of its kind in the continental Americas. In future posts, we'll take a look inside the museum, church and chapel.

The Capilla de Posa sits on the southern edge of the Ex-Convento's atrium. I was very puzzled by this structure, since there is no information about it at the site. After much Googling, I finally contacted my friend Richard Perry, who is an expert on Mexican religious architecture from the colonial period. Sure enough, he immediately knew the answer. The structure, called a "posa chapel", is one of four that originally existed at the Ex-Convento. The other three are now gone. According to Richard, chapels like this "were used in outdoor religious processions in colonial times - and still are in some places."

Plaque at the Capilla de Posa showing San Francisco (St. Francis of Assisi). He was the founder of the Franciscan Order of evangelical friars. St. Francis is the patron of animals and is famous for praising all creatures as brothers under God. This probably accounts for the various animals surrounding him. Notice the goose on the left, pulling on the rope around his waist. The rope/belts worn by Franciscan friars were symbolic of the ropes that bound Jesus and of their commitment. The specific event depicted on the plaque occurred during a forty-day period of prayer on a mountain, 2 years before San Francisco died. At that time, according to the legend, he miraculously received the "stigmata", which are the five wounds inflicted on Jesus when he was crucified.

Upper part of the Capilla Abierta on the west side of the Ex-Convento. Capillas abiertas (open chapels) were built in the 16th century after the military Conquest, during a period that was known as the Spiritual Conquest. The main part of the capilla is behind and below what you see here. The orange structures are used today to sell religious artifacts. Construction of capillas abiertas was uniquely widespread in Mexico, although there are some scattered examples elsewhere in Latin America.

Lower part of the Capilla Abierta. Structures like this were built specifically for the evangelization process. The Franciscans constructed this one in 1528, barely six years after the defeat of the Aztecs, making it the earliest structure in the complex. In pre-hispanic times, the public parts of ancient religious rites were practiced in large open areas, usually in front of a temple or pyramid. In an effort to make the conversion process easier, the friars associated their practices with those already familiar to the native people. Thus, the chapel and its altar are open, with a sizable area in front--also open--so that large numbers of indigenous people could be gathered for the Catholic services. Another example of a capilla abierta can be seen in my blog posting on the ancient Maya city of Dzbilchaltún, in Yucatan.

Jorge Aguilar "El Ranchero" Bullring

The bell tower on the west side of the complex overlooks the bullring. Just beyond the fence is a precipitous drop to an area once called the "low atrium" which contains the bullring. The bullring area was originally part of the Ex-Convento's property, according to a text written by Diego Muñoz Camargo in 1583. A hospital occupied the site from the 16th century until 1867. After the hospital closed, its cemetery continued to be used by the city for another ten years. Much Church property in Mexico The low atrium was seized and sold during the reforms of Benito Juarez in the 1870's, as part of his program of cutting the political and economic power of the Church

The bullring, as seen through the fence next to the bell tower. This has been described as Mexico's most perfect and beautiful bullring. The first mention of the bull ring occurred in 1886, but it was then little more than a cattle pen. Some decades later, steps and arches were added. The bullring assumed its present form when it was re-inaugurated in 1945.

Boys practicing their skills in the ring. They looked a bit young to be actual bullfighters-in-training, but who knows? That could just be my perception as an older guy. The bullring is named after Jorge Aguilar, a famous bullfighter knicknamed "El Ranchero" (The Rancher). Its capacity is 2,500 spectators. Fighting bulls are still raised on haciendas all over the state of Tlaxcala. However, Mexican public opinion about bullfighting is gradually changing. Three states, including Sonora, Coahuila, and Guerrero, have banned the sport because of its cruelty to the bull. In 2016, Baja California considered but postponed action on such a bill. There is no indication of any change in Tlaxcala, however.

This completes Part 5 of my Tlaxcala series. I hope you enjoyed it and, if so, please leave any comments or questions in the Comments section below. If you leave a question, PLEASE leave your email address so that I can respond.

Hasta luego, Jim